Crop Wild Relatives: A Manual of in situ Conservation by Danny Hunter, Vernon Heywood

By Danny Hunter, Vernon Heywood

Crop wild relations (CWR) are plant species that are kind of heavily relating to plants. they're a important source by means of delivering a pool of genetic version that may be utilized in breeding new and higher tailored different types of vegetation which are immune to pressure, sickness, drought and different components. they are going to be more and more vital in permitting vegetation to conform to the affects of weather, hence safeguarding destiny agricultural creation. until eventually lately, the most conservation technique followed for CWR has been ex situ - during the upkeep of samples as seed or vegetative fabric in several types of genebank or different amenities. Now the necessity to preserve CWR of their common atmosphere (in situ) is more and more well-known. contemporary study co-ordinated through Bioversity foreign has produced a wealth of data on stable practices and classes realized for his or her potent conservation. This publication captures the real sensible reviews of nations partaking during this paintings and describes them for the broader conservation group. It contains case reports and examples from Armenia, Bolivia, Madagascar, Sri Lanka and Uzbekistan, that are very important centres of range for crop wild kinfolk, and covers 4 realms - the Caucasus, South the United States, Africa and the Asia-Pacific zone. It presents functional, correct info and counsel for the scaling-up of activities focusing on CWR conservation world wide

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These hybrids possess valuable features such as high fertility and fibre quality. Wild relatives of cultivated cotton species represent very valuable material with potential for adaptation, through resistance to environmental stress factors and agricultural pests. Wilt-resistant forms of G. hirsutum subsp. mexicanum and ruderal forms of G. hirsutum ‘El Salvador’ were used in breeding programmes as the basis for the creation of a series of new forms. Wild accessions of G. herbaceum L. and G. arboreum L.

Of these five species, O. nivara and O. rufipogon are in the same genome group as cultivated rice, Oryza sativa. Hence, both species are relatively easy to hybridize with cultivated rice. With assistance from the UNEP/GEF Crop Wild Relatives project, plant breeders at the Central Rice Research and Development Institute in Sri Lanka collected 40 different accessions of O. nivara during 2006–2008. These accessions were tested for BPH resistance using standard screening procedures, and it was found that 3 accessions were highly resistant to BPH while 15 accessions were within the moderately resistant category.

Despite the fact that the importance of in situ conservation for CWR has been widely recognized, until recently the main conservation strategy of the plant genetic resource sector has been to collect material of cultivars, landraces and, to a lesser extent, CWR and to store these material ex situ in genebanks for use or potential use in plant breeding (see Chapter 12). Little attention was paid to in situ approaches. Although a handful of reserves for the in situ conservation of CWR were established in the 1980s – the Sierra de Manantlán Biosphere Reserve for the maize wild relative, Zea diploperennis, in Mexico; the Erebuni Reserve in Armenia and the Ammiad Project Reserve in Israel for wheat wild relatives; and the National Citrus Gene Sanctuary-cum-Biosphere Reserve in the West Garo Hills, India, for citrus wild relatives – only in the last 10–15 years have serious efforts been made to conserve CWR in their natural wild habitats (in situ).

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