Crime and Coercion: An Integrated Theory of Chronic by Mark Colvin (auth.)

By Mark Colvin (auth.)

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Extra info for Crime and Coercion: An Integrated Theory of Chronic Criminality

Sample text

But this is not inevitable. Life courses can and do take different trajectories than the paths initially set in childhood (Sampson and Laub 1993). But such changes require an enhancement of social supports that channel behavior in more positive directions. Cullen’s Social Support Theory Whether strain, low self-control, or coercion result in criminal behavior depends partially on social supports. Francis T. Cullen (1994) developed an integrated theory in which he argues that social supports can prevent deviant motivations from arising or they can channel these toward more positive behaviors.

This deviant motivation will lead to an act of deviance if the opportunity presents itself. As Tittle argues, the opportunity for some type of deviance is almost always present, but the form this deviance takes is not just a function of motivation and opportunity, it is also a function of constraint. Constraint will block (if it is strong) or allow (if it is weak) certain types of deviance. Thus constraint in a situation of poten- Emergence of a Differential Coercion Theory of Criminality 31 tial deviance is partly a function of the control imbalance that played into the creation of the deviant motivation.

Type 2 erratically provides non-coercive control (primarily remunerative) that gives indifferent social support and few if any limits on behavior. This pattern coincides with Patterson’s lax and permissive discipline and somewhat with Tittle’s maximum autonomy. Type 3 consistently uses coercive controls, providing low levels of social support and myriad restrictions on behavior. This pattern coincides with Tittle’s extreme repression. Type 4 erratically uses coercive controls providing low levels of social support and sporadic restrictions on behavior.

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