Computers and Commerce: A Study of Technology and Management by Arthur L. Norberg

By Arthur L. Norberg

Among 1946 and 1957 computing went from a initial, developmental level to extra common use observed by way of the beginnings of the electronic machine undefined. in this the most important decade, spurred through fast technological advances, the computing device company grew to become an important phenomenon. In pcs and trade, Arthur Norberg explores the significance of those years within the background of computing through concentrating on technical advancements and company concepts at vital corporations, either proven in 1946, Engineering examine affiliates (ERA) and Eckert-Mauchly computing device corporation (EMCC), from their early actions via their acquisition through Remington Rand.Both period and EMCC had their roots in international struggle II, and in postwar years either enterprises obtained significant investment from the us executive. Norberg analyzes the interplay among the 2 businesses and the govt. and examines the impression of this institutional context on technological innovation. He assesses the technical contributions of such key corporation figures as J. Presper Eckert, John Mauchly, Grace Hopper, and William Norris, interpreting the significance of engineering wisdom in changing theoretical designs into attainable machines. Norberg appears at the 2 organizations' operations after 1951 as self sufficient subsidiaries of Remington Rand, and records the administration difficulties that started after Remington Rand merged with Sperry Gyroscope to shape Sperry Rand in 1955.

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Extra info for Computers and Commerce: A Study of Technology and Management at Eckert-Mauchly Computer Company, Engineering Research Associates, and Remington Rand, 1946-1957 (History of Computing)

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Ciphers are a different form of substitution. The plaintext is divided into its alphanumeric parts, where each letter and number has another letter or number substituted for it. For example, plaintext letters abcde cipher letters LBQAC Ciphers, then, are more susceptible to mechanization than codes. In fact, machines were often used for this purpose, and by World War II, several sophisticated machines had come into general use. The principle behind these machines was the use of rotors that are interconnected such that when they spin in response to an electric current they substitute a code letter for the letter of plaintext.

ERA was established as an independent company in January 1946. This also provided NAC with an opportunity to stay in business with a 34 Chapter 1 new mission, preserving the jobs of the employees of NAC, most of whom eventually moved over into ERA. Simultaneously with the letting of contracts to NAC and ERA in the spring of 1946, the Naval Computing Machine Laboratory moved from Dayton to St. Paul and occupied quarters in NAC adjacent to those of ERA. These arrangements were reviewed by navy personnel at a meeting on January 5, 1946.

Briggs Royal C. Bryant Harry D. Clover Louis Y. Chaloux Alton O. Christensen John M. Coombs Howard L. Daniels Hugh S. Duncan Robert B. Einfelt Howard T. Engstrom Victor A. Gill Donald T. Greenwood William L. Grogan Robert P. Gutterman Arthur H. Hausman Herman W. Herget Raymond Hollos William P. Horton John H. Howard Donald Iacoboni William N. Jaus Robert E. Kilham Arthur A. Kotz Nels Larson Glen Ward Lund Ralph Meader Robert E. Miller Walter J. Moe Herbert G. Nilles, Jr. David L. Noble William C.

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