Cartooning: The Head & Figure by Jack Hamm

By Jack Hamm

THE QUESTION:
Are there new methods of beginning the sector of cartooning to anybody who loves to draw?

THE ANSWER:
Yes!
Here are attempted and confirmed tools that designate, simplify and educate each, despite age, the artwork of cartooning. step-by-step approaches with greater than 3,000 illustrations . . .

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Once the expected increase in the unit costs of production has been estimated, the next consideration is what change, if any, in the average mark-up, m, would be optimal. (The mark-up, m, is simply the amount by which the price exceeds the average costs of production viewed as a proportion of those costs. ) The optimal change in the mark-up will depend on the demand for additional investment funds (so as to be able to finance a capital budget in excess of the cash flow being generated at the existing margin) relative to the supply cost of those funds, whether the funds are obtained internally or externally.

The subsequent history has been variously interpreted (Hofstadter, 1955; Wiebe, 1967; Kolko, 1963). Suffice it to say that there emerged out of the political debate a major division between those who saw the megacorp primarily as a threat to the country's democratic institutions of government and those who saw it as a threat to the economic order as well; between those who viewed only some of the consolidations as culpable and those who viewed every departure from competitive conditions as a situation requiring vigorous corrective action; between those who regarded some form of regulation as the most appropriate remedy and those who regarded the break-up and dissolution of all combinations as the minimal solution.

This difference in the nature of the representative firm then leads to the following differences in the model itself. (1) The goal of the firm is short-run profit maximization rather than the highest possible rate of expansion by the firm itself. In seeking to achieve this goal, the key decisions are made by the individual who, as paterfamilias, is the firm's owner-entrepreneur. There is no executive group sharing the decision-making power (although there may be one or two partners), and there is no lower-level group of managers to help in running the firm.

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