Building by Philip Wilkinson

By Philip Wilkinson

Full-color paintings, together with cutaway illustrations and exploded perspectives, explores many of the world's most renowned architectural landmarks, together with the Paris Opera, the Taj Mahal, and Grand imperative Station.

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It was often used on religious buildings, such as the Dome of the Rock in Jerusalem. Carved stone ornamentation Panel Shaft FANNING OUT FOREST OF RIBS Rib Supporting column Base Gothic masons of the Middle Ages built some of the finest vaults, with ribs thrusting upward to form pointed arches. These arches made it easier to vault spaces of varying dimensions. This ribbed vault, built in 1202-24, is in the crypt of Rochester Cathedral, England. Vaults like this were popular for roofing the high spaces of large churches and cathedrals; they were also widely used in crypts and cellars in castles and churches.

Until relatively recently, this was the most common type of floor in ordinary houses, and it is still widely used in developing countries. In time, people began to build floors with wooden boards supported by crossbeams called joists. More elaborate buildings had floors covered with stone flags, bricks, or tiles. Only in the grandest buildings – such as the villas of the Romans with their elaborate mosaic floors, or Italian Renaissance palaces paved with marble – was the floor a decorative feature.

Boards laid on top of joists make a light, strong floor that can be used at any level of a building. The boards are often covered by carpets or rugs. They may also be laid in decorative patterns, or stained to bring out the pattern of the grain of the wood and left bare. BEECH BOARDS On this richly grained beech floor, pieces of beech have been varnished and bonded in strips. A thin band of neoprene (a type of rubber) separates and breaks up the color. 45 Doors and doorways An 18th-century dolphin door handle, England T    were simply holes in a wall, covered by animal skins to keep out the weather.

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