Brain Imaging. An Introduction by John R. Bradshaw (Auth.)

By John R. Bradshaw (Auth.)

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They are: TR (repetition time), time for one complete cycle; TE (time to echo), time from initial RF pulse to resonant signal; TI (time to inversion), time from initial RF pulse to second inverting pulse {see inversion recovery sequence). These may be represented as shown in Figure 99 in a hypothetical (but quite useless) pulse sequence. Inversion recovery (IR). In this sequence two RF pulses are applied: the first swings the magnetization vector through 180° and after a short interval ('time to inversion' or TI) the vector is inverted by a 90° pulse.

Arch injections require a 6 or 7 French calibre catheter of pig-tail or other arch injection type. Selective carotid or vertebral arteriography requires specially shaped catheters (usually 5 French) of which the Mani pattern is the most popular. Other shapes such as Sidewinder, Headhunter etc. may be useful. For arch studies the tip of the catheter should be placed halfway between the aortic valve and the brachiocephalic trunk. A series of six films is usually sufficient to visualize all the important vessels.

A delayed film series is needed to show the cortical and deep veins to best advantage and to demonstrate venous occlusions and thrombosis. Prior to CT, angiography was the principal technique used in the diagnosis of brain tumours. CT quickly proved invaluable in this application and the 27 need for angiography dropped sharply. Nowadays the use of angiography in tumours is mostly limited to special applications such as demonstrating the blood supply to meningiomas, defining durai invasion in gliomas, and in differentiating infarcts and low-grade astrocytoma in cases where doubt remains after CT or MRI scans.

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