Biophysics by Eberhard Schnepf (auth.), Professor Dr. Walter Hoppe,

By Eberhard Schnepf (auth.), Professor Dr. Walter Hoppe, Professor Dr. Wolfgang Lohmann, Professor Dr. Hubert Markl, Professor Dr. Hubert Ziegler (eds.)

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Microtubules forming the phragmoplast and being arranged normal to the developing cell plate may function here as guiding structures. When the cell plate has reached the wall of the mother cell, it becomes the middle lamella and its membrane the new plasma membranes. 4 Evolution of the Eucyte Evolution oflife and the origin of the first primitive cells is dealt with in detail in Chap. 18. Here only the evolution of the eucyte is to be discussed briefly. As was shown in the preceding sections, the eucyte differs from the protocyte not only in size, in a more complex compartmentation, in the existence of true flagella or cilia and of a nucleus but also in the occurrence of mitochondria and, in green plants, of plastids, i.

1). Additional secondary constrictions likewise can be found; often they are associated with the nucleolar organizer (Sect. 3). In somatic cells of higher animals and plants there are two homologous chromosomes, one of them from the In metabolically active nuclei there are one to several nucleoli, dense inclusions of the karyoplasm with a relatively high RNA content. Mostly they have a globular shape. They do not occur when nucleic acids are not synthesized, during nuclear division and in the nuclei of spermatozoa.

The vacuole is a storage organelle as well as a compartment for the deposition of waste products. Especially remarkable are crystals of calcium oxalate which are found in certain vacuoles. In addition, the vacuoles include those lytic enzymes which characterize the lysosomes of animals. Vacuoles therefore replace the lysosomes in plants. 1 Mitochondria The mitochondria (Figs. 10) are the organelles of respiration and produce most of the A TP, i. , most of the convertible energy in the cell. They are the site of the citrate cycle, the respiratory chain and the oxidative phosphorylation, and of fatty acid degradation.

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