Biology - The Science of Life by Stephen Nowicki

By Stephen Nowicki

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B. 3. tRNA is a single strand of RNA about 80 nucleotides long. Unlike mRNA, tRNA has a complex three-dimensional structure that arises from complementary base pairing. c. tRNA has, on one end, a three-base sequence (the anticodon) that binds to a specific codon on mRNA. The anticodon is variable, but there are only about 45 types of tRNA, because some types of tRNA recognize multiple codons that differ only in their last bases. d. The other end of a tRNA is invariable, but it bonds with the correct amino acid through the help of aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase.

The presence or absence of these transcription factors serves as a kind of switch to control when stretches of DNA are to be transcribed into RNA. II. DNA contains quite a bit of apparently useless material whose purpose is not known. A. In eukaryotes, the initial RNA transcript includes large segments of RNA that are not part of the code needed to produce a protein. These stretches must be eliminated somehow in order to make a fully functional transcript for the protein. B. The average size of a transcription unit is about 8,000 nucleotides long.

The information in DNA is stored as a sequential pattern of nucleotide bases. The process of replication transmits this information to newly synthesized DNA, preserving the sequential pattern. B. The information in DNA can be transmitted to a molecule of RNA through a process called transcription. The biochemical language of RNA is essentially the same as that of DNA, and RNA synthesis is similar in many respects to synthesis of new DNA. 36 ©2004 The Teaching Company Limited Partnership C. Information is not very useful in RNA; RNA’s main purpose is to pass genetic information to the process that builds proteins.

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