Biology of Earthworms by Sun Zhenjun (auth.), Ayten Karaca (eds.)

By Sun Zhenjun (auth.), Ayten Karaca (eds.)

Earthworms, which belong to the order Oligochaeta, contain approximately 3,000 species grouped into 5 households. Earthworms were known as ‘ecosystem engineers’; very like human engineers, they alter the constitution in their environments. Earthworms are very flexible and are present in approximately all terrestrial ecosystems. They play a tremendous position in woodland and agricultural ecosystems. This Soil Biology quantity describes a few of the points of earthworms, akin to their position in soil development, soil constitution, and the biocontrol of soil-borne plant fungal illnesses. experiences speak about earthworms’ innate immune process, molecular markers to deal with numerous problems with earthworm ecology, earthworm inhabitants dynamics, and the impacts of natural farming structures and tillage. extra issues contain the features of vermicompost, relationships among soil earthworms and enzymes, the position of spermathecae, copulatory habit, and adjustment of the donated sperm volume.

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Both spatial heterogeneity and autocorrelation should be accounted for in the sampling design of any ecological field study, as many statistical tests rely on the assumption of independence of observations. , earthworm density) are said to be spatially autocorrelated when pairs of observations with a certain distance apart are more similar (positive autocorrelation) or less similar (negative autocorrelation) than expected for randomly associated pairs of observations. This higher (or lower) similarity among mutually closer observation sites is very common in nature.

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