Atlas of Human Anatomy vol.I-Musculoskeletal System by R. D. Sinelnikov and Ludmila Aksenova

By R. D. Sinelnikov and Ludmila Aksenova

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A diverse family of GPCRs expressed in specific subsets of nociceptive sensory neurons. Cell. 2001;106:619–32. Dubuisson D, Dennis SG. The formalin test: a quantitative study of the analgesic effects of morphine, meperidine, and brain stem stimulation in rats and cats. Pain. 1977;4:161–74. Dunford PJ, Williams KN, Desai PJ, Karlsson L, McQueen D, Thurmond RL. Histamine H4 receptor antagonists are superior to traditional antihistamines in the attenuation of experimental pruritus. J Allergy Clin Immunol.

J Neurosci Methods. 1994;53:55–63. Chapman CR. Evoked potentials as correlates of pain and pain relief in man. Agents Actions Suppl. 1986;19:51–73. Choi Y, Yoon YW, Na HS, Kim SH, Chung JM. Behavioral signs of ongoing pain and cold allodynia in a rat model of neuropathic pain. Pain. 1994;59:369–76. Cizza G, Sternberg EM. The role of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis in susceptibility to autoimmune/inflammatory disease. Immunomethods. 1994;5:73–8. 20 T. Yuan et al. Cunha TM, Verri WJ, Vivancos GG, Moreira IF, Reis S, Parada CA, Cunha FQ, Ferreira SH.

The goal was to use the mouse as an animal model for investigating the peripheral neural mechanisms of itch and pain of ACD in humans. Humans and mice were each sensitized by cutaneous topical application of squaric acid dibutyl ester, a hapten not encountered in the environment. Subsequent challenge at another cutaneous site produced local inflammation (“ACD”) with humans reporting persistent itch (lasting up to a week) and mice exhibiting persistent itch- and pain-like behaviors directed toward the ACD site.

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