Agricultural Trends in India, 1891-1947: Output, by George Blyn

By George Blyn

In a constructing financial system, agriculture must never merely offer for a turning out to be population, but in addition produce a surplus for funding. For an old, custom-domi­nated land like India, how does agriculture try and meet those calls for? during this booklet, the industrial background of India's agriculture and the level of its improvement, from 1891 to independence (1947), is heavily and authoritatively tested in a learn of output, acreage, and yield in keeping with acre for the eighteen plants that represent so much of India's agriculture.

The nature of swap for every of those eighteen plants, and for the foodgrain, non­foodgrain, and all-crop teams is defined and analyzed for the fifty-six-year interval as a complete, in addition to for shorter sessions, for British India and 6 significant areas. Output and alternate info are mixed to figure out traits within the availability of plants. those traits are in comparison with inhabitants figures to point alterations in India's welfare. to give an explanation for the tendencies in acre productiveness, shut scrutiny is given to adjustments m the composition of output, depth of cultivation, agricultural expertise, and actual environment.

An large therapy of the methodological difficulties encountered in assembling enough crop info and statistical measurements precedes the research of agricultural improvement. a correct account needs to stability the multitude of variables fascinated by the advanced procedure in which agricultural info was once compiled and evaluated: the reliability of the village recorders, the alterations in boundary strains and the resultant alterations in documents, the impact of weather and overseas markets, in addition to the bigger styles of heritage and nature, war and catastrophe.

The accomplished Appendix comprises, between different resource fabrics, the yearly information for person plants and crop aggregates and their pattern charges for person a long time. The textual content comprises a number of tables, charts, and maps.

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Additional resources for Agricultural Trends in India, 1891-1947: Output, Availability, and Productivity

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For some of these years the data for areas which became part of independent India was cast in a different regional mold than the syste� of "British Provinces, and regional data for areas which became part of Pakistan were not available. Estimates of Area and Yield of the Principal Crops in India,' issued annually from 1891/�2, contains most of the data used in this study. Estimates gives output as well as acre­ age data for the reporting provinces and states, British India­ and all-India;· states and provinces were not always separated, however, until 1921/22.

Against the danger of estimates prepared for statistical pur­ poses being coloured by questions of suspension and remission of revenue. We consider that there has too frequently been in the past a tendency on the part of both primary and other reporting agencies to report an incorrect crop, when the crop approaches a point at which questions of suspension and remission appear likely to arise. Whether the downward-expected bias of the village official 11 Provincial anna normals were: 12 annas-Madras, Bombay, Bengal, Assam; 16 annas-United Provinces, Punjab, North West Frontier Province; Bihar and Orissa-12 districts at 12 annas, 7 at 13 annas,.

The last five • Earlier Estimates, covered "... those tracts whert th,e respective crops were grown on an extensive or commercial scale. Tracts of min� importance have been 'added gradu:tlly:" Estimates, 1940/41, p. 1. 42 AGRICULTURAL TRENDS IN INDIA, 1891-1947 crops brought into the Estimates occupied much less acreage than the ones reported earlier. , 91 stan ds for 1891;92. Provinces abbreviated above for Ajmer-Merwara, Assam, Ben gal, Bihar, Bombay, Central Provinces, Coorg, Delhi, Madras, North West Frontier Province, Orissa, Pu n jab, Si nd, a nd U nited Provinces.

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