Account of microwave irradiation for accelerating organic by El Sayed H. El Ashry and Ahmed A. Kassem

By El Sayed H. El Ashry and Ahmed A. Kassem

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At constant temperature, AG = AH - 7' AS ( T = absolute temperature) For a reaction to be spontaneous, AG must be negative. 10 State whether the following reactions have a positive or negative AS and give a reason for your choice. H2 + H2C=CH2 - H,CCH, - H,C-CH=CH2 CH,COO-(aq) + H,O'(aq) CH,COOH + H20 4 Negative. Two molecules are changing into one molecule and there is more order (less randomness) in the product (S, < SR). (6) Positive. The rigid ring opens to give compound having free rotation about the C - C single bond.

BONDING AND MOLECULAR STRUCTURE 18 [CHAP. 2 ( h ) Unshared pairs of electrons exert a greater repulsive force than do shared pairs, which causes a contraction of bond angles. The more unshared pairs there are, the greater is the contraction. 8 Each H-N-H bond angle in :NH, is 107". What type of AO's does N use'? ,N = TS. 2s 1s 4 (ground state) 2p: 2p, 2p, If the ground-state N atom were to use its three equal-energy p AO's to form three equivalent N-H bonds, each H-N-H bond angle would be 90". Since the actual bond angle is 107" rather than YO", N .

Probability of collision is related to the number of molecules of each reactant and is proportional to the molar concentrations. 2. Enthalpy of activation (activation energy, EpCt) ( A H ' ) . Reaction may take place only when colliding molecules have some enthalpy content, AH', in excess of the average. The smaller the value of AH', the more successful will be the collisions and the faster the reaction. ) 3. Entropy of activation ( A S ' ) , also called the probability factor. Not all collisions between molecules possessing the requisite AH' result in reaction.

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