A Textbook of Regional Anatomy by J. Joseph MD, DSc, FRCOG (auth.)

By J. Joseph MD, DSc, FRCOG (auth.)

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Its most fixed part is the hilum, where the structures which enter and leave the lung form the root of the lung. The External Features of the Lungs. The living lung is mottled deep to its smooth surface formed by the visceral pleura (figure 25). On close examination the mottling is seen to consist of lines marking small polyhedral areas, within which are finer lines subdividing these areas. The lines are due to the deposition of fine particles of carbon which have been inhaled and deposited in the areolar tissue near the surface of the lung.

The duct of each lobe is enlarged to form the lactiferous sinus before narrowing and opening on to the nipple. Before pregnancy the glandular tissue consists largely of ducts with a small number of non-secreting alveoli. During the first half of pregnancy the duct tissue increases and in the second half the secretory tissue proliferates. Following the birth of the child the secretory tissue produces milk. The breast thus enlarges considerably during pregnancy and lactation. Following the cessation of lactation the breast decreases in size but does not return to its nulli- The Thoracic Skeleton and Walls PECTORALIS MAJORM.

The right ventricle forms most of the anterior surface of the heart and extends inferiorly. The right atrium forms the right border, between the anterior and right surfaces, and the whole of the right side. The left ventricle forms the left border, a small part of the anterior surface and the apex but most of it is on the inferior surface. It also forms a small part of the posterior surface. There are two grooves on the anterior surface, the coronary sulcus (atrioventricular groove) between the right atrium and right ventricle, and the anterior interventricular sulcus between the ventricles.

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