A Text-book of Practical Organic Chemistry Including by Arthur Israel Vogel

By Arthur Israel Vogel

The most effective books there's instructing useful natural chemistry. The 3rd version of this ebook (first released in 1956) is basically of far better use to the pastime chemist, because it doesn't utilize any hideously pricey glassware/apparatus or unique reagents or catalysts.

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Extra info for A Text-book of Practical Organic Chemistry Including Qualitative Organic Analysis. Third Edition

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V, V2 L, L2 LMa Composition Fig. /, 4t 5. B Examples of azeotropic mixtures of maximum boiling point are tabulated below ; these are not as numerous as those of minimum boiling point. TABLE I, 4, B. P. p. ) IN MIXTURE 77-5 37 20-22 47-6 57-0 i ! 68 98-3 71-6 ; 80 65 23 58 ; 12 PRACTICAL ORGANIC CHEMISTRY [I, 1,5. The breaking up of azeotropic mixtures. The behaviour of constant boiling point mixtures simulates that of a pure compound, because the composition of the liquid phase is identical with that of the vapour phase.

This point is called the eutectic point (Greek : easy melting), and represents tjie temperature and composition at which the system liquid - solid A - solid B can exist in equilibrium ; in short, it gives the temperature and Composition of the system when both components crystallise out simultaneously. This solid mixture is known as the eutectic mixture. It has a fixed composition and melts and freezes, like a pure substance, at a definite temperature. This temperature is the eutectic temperature and is always the lowest freezing point of the whole series of mixtures of A and B.

P. p. p. p. p. p. p. p. p. p. p. p. p. p. p. p. 131° 1,14. System in which the two components form a compound possessing a congruent melting point. This system, which occurs less frequently than that of Section 1,12, is of considerable interest. The equilibrium diagram depicted in Fig. , capable of existing as a solid compound in equilibrium with a liquid of the same composition. Point A is the melting point of benzophenone (47 -7°) and B that of diphenylamine (52-8°). When diphenylamine is added to benzophenone, the freezing point is lowered along the curve AC.

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