A Synopsis of Physiology by A. Rendle Short and C. I. Ham (Auth.)

By A. Rendle Short and C. I. Ham (Auth.)

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E F F E R E N T I M P U L S E S FROM C E N T R E . — a. In 3rd, 4th, and 5th cervical anterior nerve-roots by phrenic nerves to diaphragm. If spinal cord is injured below 5th cervical segment, respiration can still continue. b. By anterior nerve-roots in dorsal region to intercostal and abdominal muscles. c. By vagi to muscles abducting vocal cords and widening glottis during inspiration, and to bronchi. Stimulation of vagus causes constriction of bronchioles and diminished air-entry. On section of vagus, bronchioles dilate.

Lymph may therefore be looked upon as a secretion of the active cells, and does not merely depend on increased vascularity. —Koranyi and Starling consider this result is due to breaking down of larger molecules THE CEREBROSPINAL FLUID 27 into more numerous smaller ones, thus increasing osmotic pressure. —From periphery to thoracic duct and right lymphatic duct. — 1. —The pressure where the thoracic duct opens into the great veins is very low and may be negative ; in the tissues it is considerably higher.

Contraction of diaphragm. Muscular dome moves down more than central tendon. 2. Elevation of 2nd to 5th pairs of ribs by external intercostale, interchondrals, and levatores costarum, and at same time outward rotation of them. 3. Lifting forward of sternum by ribs. Men usually show abdominal, women costal type of respiration ; latter said to be due to clothing of civilized women. FORCED INSPIRATION,—Scaleni, trapezius, sternomastoid, and pectoralis major come into play. , opening of external nares and dilatation of glottis.

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