A comprehensive guide to the hazardous properties of by Pradyot Patnaik

By Pradyot Patnaik

The definitive consultant to the harmful homes of chemical compounds

Correlating chemical constitution with toxicity to people and the surroundings, and the chemical constitution of compounds to their damaging homes, A entire consultant to the dangerous homes of chemical compounds, 3rd Edition permits clients to evaluate the toxicity of a substance even if no experimental facts exists. therefore, it bridges the distance among detrimental fabrics and chemistry. broadly up-to-date and accelerated, this reference:

  • Examines organics, metals and inorganics, business solvents, universal gases, particulates, explosives, and radioactive ingredients, overlaying every little thing from toxicity and carcinogenicity to flammability and explosive reactivity to dealing with and disposal practices
  • Arranges damaging chemicals in keeping with their chemical constructions and sensible teams for simple reference
  • Includes up-to-date details at the poisonous, flammable, and explosive homes of chemical substances
  • Covers extra metals within the chapters on poisonous and reactive metals
  • Updates the edge publicity limits within the office air for a few substances
  • Features the most recent info on commercial solvents and poisonous and flammable gases
  • Includes a number of tables, formulation, and a word list for fast reference

since it offers info that allows people with a chemistry historical past to accomplish checks with out previous info, this accomplished reference appeals to chemists, chemical engineers, toxicologists, and forensic scientists, in addition to commercial hygienists, occupational physicians, Hazmat pros, and others in similar fields.

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Example text

Another class of chlorinated organics, which are environmental pollutants, are the organochlorine pesticides: dichlorodiphenyl trichloroethane (DDT), heptachlor, dieldrin, chlordane, lindane. The structure of these compounds differs from each other, as do their toxic properties. Some chlorinated organic compounds, including phosgene (carbonyl chloride), mustard gas [bis(2-chloroethyl)sulfide], dioxins (2,3,7,8-tetrachloro isomer), and chlorinated dibenzofurans, are known to be dangerously toxic.

On the other hand, the conjugation process produces adducts of the toxicants or their metabolites with endogenous metabolites. All these reactions are heavily biocatalyzed by various enzyme systems in the body. The rate and nature of the reactions can vary from one species of animal to another. Also, the biotransformation can differ with the age and the sex of the animal. Some biotransformation processes produce metabolites that are more toxic than DETOXICATION AND BIOACTIVATION the parent chemicals.

On the other hand, these substances tend to exist in ionized form in the plasma and become mobile. Similarly, the weak bases will be highly ionized in the acidic gastric juice in the stomach and therefore would not be absorbed readily in the stomach. The route of entry of many toxicants is inhalation. Such substances include gases, vapors of volatile liquids, and particulate matter. The main site of absorption is the alveoli in the lungs. This site has a large alveolar area and high blood flow, favoring absorption.

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