A brief history of computing by Gerard O'Regan

By Gerard O'Regan

This vigorous and engaging textual content strains the main advancements in computation – from 3000 B.C. to the current day – in an easy-to-follow and concise demeanour. subject matters and lines: perfect for self-study, delivering many pedagogical gains comparable to chapter-opening key issues, bankruptcy introductions and summaries, routines, and a word list; provides unique info on significant figures in computing, comparable to Boole, Babbage, Shannon, Turing, Zuse and Von Neumann; reports the heritage of software program engineering and of programming languages, together with syntax and semantics; discusses the growth of synthetic intelligence, with extension to such key disciplines as philosophy, psychology, linguistics, neural networks and cybernetics; examines the influence on society of the creation of the non-public machine, the area broad internet, and the advance of cellphone know-how; follows the evolution of a few significant know-how businesses, together with IBM, Microsoft and Apple.

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The Babylonians developed a base 60 number system and recorded their mathematical knowledge on clay cuneiform tablets. These tablets included tables for multiplication, division, squares and square roots and the calculation of area. They were familiar with techniques that allowed the solution of a linear equation and one root of a quadratic equation to be determined. The Egyptian civilisation developed along the River Nile and lasted over 3,000 years. They applied their knowledge of mathematics to solve practical problems such as measuring the annual Nile flooding and constructing temples and pyramids.

Merchants introduced a set of weights and measures (including the libra for weights and the pes for lengths). C. C. by Julius Caesar. It has a regular year of 365 days divided into 12 months, and a leap day is added to February every 4 years. It remained in use up to the twentieth century but has since been replaced by the Gregorian calendar. The problem with the Julian calendar is that too many leap years are added over time. The Gregorian calendar was first introduced in 1582. The Romans employed the mathematics that had been developed by the Greeks.

Each city state had political structures for its citizens, and these varied from city state to city state. Some were oligarchs where political power was maintained in the hands of a few individuals or aristocratic families. Others were ruled by tyrants (or sole rulers) who sometimes took power by force, but who often had a lot of support from the public. The tyrants included people such as Solon, Peisistratus and Cleisthenes in Athens. 12 The length of a side of the bottom base of the pyramid is b1and the length of a side of the top base is b2.

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