88 Topics in Current Chemistry: Organic Chemistry Syntheses by C. Rüchardt, Steric Effects, L. Birkofer, O. Stuhl, K. A.

By C. Rüchardt, Steric Effects, L. Birkofer, O. Stuhl, K. A. Muszkat, N. T. Anh

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Ed. EngL 1 7, 594 (1978). In any case, all results point to much weaker force constants of out of plane deformations for free radicals than for earbenium ions. -di-t-butyl cyclopropyl radicals; el. , lngold, K. : J. Am. Chem. Soc. 100, 7073 (1978) 15. f. Eliel, E. , Stereochemistry of Carbon Compounds, 1st edition, p. 267 ff. New York: McGraw-Hill Book Co. 1962, Eliel, E. L. in Newman, M. , Sterie Effects in Organic Chemistry, p. 212ff. New York: Wiley 1965 16. The geometry at the transition states of the ionisation is close to the sp2-state of the carbenium ion: cf.

Et aL: Phys. Sci. A. 89, 107103 (1978); Griller, D. et aL: J. Am. Chem. Soe. 100, 6750, (1978). , Beckhaus, H. , Angew. Chem. 90, 635 (1978); Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. EngL 1 7, 594 (1978). In any case, all results point to much weaker force constants of out of plane deformations for free radicals than for earbenium ions. -di-t-butyl cyclopropyl radicals; el. , lngold, K. : J. Am. Chem. Soc. 100, 7073 (1978) 15. f. Eliel, E. , Stereochemistry of Carbon Compounds, 1st edition, p. 267 ff. New York: McGraw-Hill Book Co.

O. calculation 49). 110 The 4 a,4 b-Dihydrophenanthrenes 3 Vibrational Structure As was mentioned previously, the first absorption band (I) of 4 a,4b-dihydrophenanthrene is usually structureless and rather broad, having a half height width (&Xl/2) of 4700 cm - l in 1. This band shows vibrational structure (developed to various extents) only in 12, 13, 15, 37, 38, 40, 43-46, and in 49-53 (see Table 13). The observed vibrational spacings, usually 1 2 0 0 - 1 4 0 0 cm -1, correspond very probably to an excited state-totally symmetric stretching mode (vs) of the C - C double bonds such as t~ Vs whose frequency would be lower than the frequency o f the same mode in the electronic ground state.

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